Cardiology

High Blood Pressure

Hypertension, also known as high or raised blood pressure, is a major private and public health concern. Worldwide, raised blood pressure is estimated to cause 7.5 million deaths, about 12.8% of the total of all deaths. Raised blood pressure is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease and ischemic as well as hemorrhagic stroke.

Blood pressure levels have been shown to be positively and continuously related to the risk for stroke and coronary heart disease. Globally, the overall prevalence of raised blood pressure in adults aged 25 and over was around 40% in 2008.  

References: Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, et al. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 2012;380:2224-60.

http://www.who.int/topics/hypertension/en/ http://www.who.int/gho/ncd/risk_factors/blood_pressure_prevalence_text/en/

Thromboembolism encompasses two interrelated conditions that are part of the same spectrum, deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE).

Thromboembolic disease is the third most common acute cardiovascular disease, after cardiac ischemic syndromes and stroke. In addition, it occurs with an incidence of approximately 1 per 1000 annually in adult populations.

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

Blood clots that develop in a vein are also known as venous thrombosis. DVT usually occurs in a deep leg vein, a larger vein that runs through the muscles of the calf and the thigh. It can cause pain and swelling in the leg and may lead to complications such as pulmonary embolism. This is a serious condition that occurs when a piece of blood clot breaks off into the bloodstream and blocks one of the blood vessels in the lungs.

If left untreated, about one in 10 people with a DVT will develop a pulmonary embolism.

Pulmonary embolism (PE)

A pulmonary embolism is a blockage in the pulmonary artery, the blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the lungs. This blockage – usually a blood clot – is potentially life-threatening because it can prevent blood from reaching your lungs.

Heart Failure

Heart failure is a chronic, progressive condition in which the heart muscle is unable to pump enough blood through to meet the body's needs for blood and oxygen. Basically, the heart can't keep up with its workload. Eventually the heart and body just can't keep up, and the person experiences the fatigue, breathing problems or other symptoms that usually prompt a trip to the doctor. The body's compensation mechanisms help explain why some people may not become aware of their condition until years after their heart begins its decline. (It's also a good reason to have a regular checkup with your doctor). Heart failure can involve the heart's left side, right side or both sides. However, it usually affects the left side first. Heart failure is a major public health problem, with a worldwide prevalence of 23 million. After the diagnosis of Heart failure, survival estimates are 50% at 5 years and 10% at 10 years.